Ever your mind drives the question of why we use semiconductors instead of iron in computers or how the modern periodic table help scientists or researchers put their fingers on to characterize the particular elements. For advancing technology and future research, the periodic table helps scientists identify the complete information about elements like atomic mass, ionization, symbols, etc. It also helps to recognize those elements that have yet to be discovered.
What is a Periodic Table?
The periodic table also called the periodic table of chemical elements is an arrangement of elements in increasing order of atomic numbers and recurring chemical properties. This table is distinguished by row and column, where the row represents periods, and the column represents the groups.
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What is Block in a Periodic Table?
Charles Janet, a Biologist, and lepidopterist termed the Block a set of adjacent element groups unified by atomic orbitals whose valence electron is assigned. These blocks are characterized as S, P, D, and F blocks based on the spectroscopic lines of atomic orbitals.
Block names s, p, d, and f are derived from describing spectroscopic lines of atomic orbital that are sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental.
S- Block Elements
The elements that have the last electron enter the outermost S orbit are known as the S block elements. S block elements can accommodate only two electrons.
These S block elements can be bifurcate into group 1(Alkali metals) and group 2(Alkaline earth metals). It has total 14 elements Hydrogen (H), lithium (Li), helium (He), sodium (Na), beryllium (Be), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), rubidium (Rb), calcium (Ca), cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), francium (Fr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). All the elements of the S block are metals except hydrogen and helium.
Electronic Configuration of S Block Elements
The general electronic configuration of S Block(Group-1) elements are
|Sodium||Na||1S2 2S2 2P6 3S1|
|Potassium||K||1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P6 4S1|
|Rubidium||Rb||1S2 2S2 2P6 3S2 3P6 3D10 4S2 4P6 5S1|
The general electronic configuration of S Block(Group-2) elements are
Properties of S Block Elements
- The elements with ns1 and ns2 electronic configurations belong to the family of the S block.
- S block elements have low ionization enthalpies.
- S block elements do not occur in their pure state.
- All elements of S block elements are reactive.
- Due to a weak metallic bond, the S block elements have low melting and boiling points.
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P- Block Elements
When the last electron of elements occupies any of the three P orbitals of their respective shells, recognized in groups 13,14,15,16,17, and 18(except helium) are known as P block elements. Not more than six electrons can accommodate in the set of P orbital. Elements in the P block are assigned from group 13 to group 18, including the boron family, carbon family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, halogen family, and neon family. The total 35 elements in the p block include metal, non-metal, and metalloids, and the general configuration of P block elements is ns2 np1-6.
General Electronic Configuration of P Block Elements
|General Electronic Configuration||nS2 nP1||nS2 nP2||nS2 nP3||nS2 nP4||nS2 nP5||nS2 nP6|
|First Member of the group||B||C||N||O||F||He|
|Group Oxidation State||+3||+4||+5||+6||+7||+8|
|Other Oxidation State||+1||+2, -4||+3, -3||+4, +2, -2||+5,+3, +1, -1||+6, +4, +2|
Properties of P Block Elements
- The last electron or valance electron enters into any of three P orbitals.
- The electronic configuration of P block elements is nS2 nP1-6.
- The oxidation state in the P block element is high.
- The P block element consists of non-metals and metalloids.
- The reactivity of non-metal decreases down the group.
D & F Block Elements
The elements from group-3 to group-12 are known as D block elements. It is also known as transition elements. The last electron of the D block element enters the D orbital.
The D block elements are also known as transition elements because the characteristics of these elements lie between highly reactive elements of the S block and non-metallic elements of the P block.
|3D||Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn|
|4D||Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd|
|5D||La, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg|
The elements found outside the periodic table are called F block elements. It is also known as inner transition elements. The last electron of F block elements enters the F orbital. The F block is further classified into Lanthanides and Actinides. Lanthanides are the first group of the F block element in which elements with the atomic numbers 57 to 71 are non-radioactive elements.
Actinides are the second group of the F block element in which elements from 89 to 103, most of them are radioactive.
|Lanthanides(4F series)||Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb|
|Actinides(5F series)||Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, Mo|
Properties of D Block Elements
- D block elements are also known as transition elements.
- The last electron of the D block elements enters in D orbital.
- The electronic configuration of the D block element is (n-1)D1-10 nS1-2.
- D block elements have 3D series, 4D series, and 5D series.
- The elements to the D block have a very high density.
Properties of F Block Elements
- F block elements are powerful reducing agents.
- Lenthenides elements are very soft.
- They have high boiling and melting point.
- Elements of actinides are radioactive.
- Elements of actinides are electropositive.
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)
1. How many blocks are in the periodic table?
There are four blocks in the modern periodic table.
2. Which element is considered the heaviest element in the modern periodic table?
Uranium(atomic number 92) is the heaviest element in the modern periodic table.
3. What is Aufbau Principal?
According to the Aufbau principle, the electrons should be filled in lower energy atomic orbitals before filling in the higher energy orbitals.
4. Lightest element in the modern periodic table?
Hydrogen is the lightest element in the modern periodic table.
5. How to learn the modern periodic table?
Use different mnemonic techniques to frame the elements in your mind, or you can use the various quizzes for periodic properties to learn the elements in the modern periodic table.